This paper proposes a review of the use of lichenometry in Iceland since , using different techniques to solve the chronology of geomorphic processes. Most users have sought to date proglacial landforms in two main areas: Based on the results of over 35 published studies, lichenometry has been widely applied in Iceland, proposing numerical ages absolute dating and relative ages relative dating of different surfaces. Increasing awareness of methodological limitations of the technique, together with more sophisticated data processing, has led some authors to claim that lichenometric 'ages' are robust and reliable. However, the different measurement techniques used make it difficult to compare regions or studies in the same area.
This paper proposes lichenometry dating curve review lichenometry dating curve the use of lichenometry in Iceland sinceusing different techniques to solve the chronology of geomorphic processes. Most users have sought to date proglacial landforms in two main areas: Based on the results of over 35 published studies, lichenometry has been widely applied in Iceland, proposing numerical ages absolute dating and lichenometry dating curve ages relative dating of different surfaces.
Increasing awareness of methodological limitations of the technique, together with more sophisticated data processing, has led some authors to claim that lichenometric 'ages' are robust and reliable. However, the different measurement techniques used make it difficult to compare regions or studies in lichenometry dating curve same area.
These problems are exacerbated in Iceland by rapid environmental changes across short distances and more generally by lichen species mis-identification in the field. Moreover, the reliability of lichenometric dates is discredited by their lack of correspondence with tephrochronologic data, whatever the lichenometric method used. Finally, the accuracy of lichenometry quickly weakens after few decades of surface exposure and the method loses rapidly any absolute aptitude.
At the end, absolute dates proposed in the literature are not very trustworthy, and lichenometry should be used for relative dating only. I wish to thank Gerald Osborn and an anonymous reviewer for their thorough reading and constructive comments on the manuscript, pointed out indecisive wording and shortcomings, substantially improving the quality of the paper.
I also thank Erwan Roussel and Martin Kirkbride for their comments on a previous version of the manuscript. The technique takes advantage of the radial development of the thallus on lichenometry dating curve rock, specifically the species within the Rhizocarpon subgenus, and has been applied in Iceland as well as in other cold environments Golledge et al.
The field method remained quite similar lichenometry dating curve the lichenometry dating curve four decades, but the statistical techniques to analyse the collected data sets evolved considerably in the last several years, leading to lichenometry dating curve debate in the scientific literature.
Results are better for short periods of time, when sources of errors are minimal less lichen species on the surface, less mortality within the first generation that colonised the surfacestarting to become much relative over about hundred years, a period of time beyond which very few control points are available. Through examples, the validity of lichenometry as an absolute dating method is questioned. Lichenometry dating curve Iceland, most lichenometric studies have been performed in proglacial environments to date moraine sequences e.
Jaksch,; Caseldine Some studies have used these dated moraine records to make climatic inferences lichenometry dating curve the last three centuries e. Thompson, ; Casely and Dugmore, ; Bradwell et al. Caseldine, ; Kugelmann,; Bradwell, a, b; Chenet et al. Some studies have used lichenometry to date glacial outwash deposits Maizels and Dugmore, and proglacial river incision Thompson and Jones, ; Roussel et al. Mann will keine beziehung trotzdem treffen and Armstrong, ; Orwin et al.
Kirkbride and Dugmore,lichenometry dating curve More isolated investigations regarding debris-flow and snow-avalanche frequency have been carried out in Northwestern and North Iceland Decaulne et al.
The contrasted environment lichenometry dating curve and precipitation, wind and snow cover, … of Iceland offers another possible aim that would test latitudinal and altitudinal comparisons of lichen growth to attempt getting answers on the influence of climate on lichenometry dating curve growth in Iceland. Numbers refer to table 1 as well as figure 2.
Also commonly applied is the five largest lichens approach, where researchers take into account either the long axes most authors or the short axes of the five largest lichens on a surface or within a subsample of the surface e. Both approaches were retaining only a limited amount of lichens measured on each surface, proposing an average result that limits the weight of the potential anomalous largest lichen.
Relying on few data sets only, the method is considered weak from a statistical point of view McKinsey et al. The bases for these two simplest approaches are grounded, according to Beschelon: However, the second of these basic statements is an assumption unsupported by ecological properties and population dynamics of lichens Joachimsen, ; McCarthy, lichenometry dating curve In this approach, all thalli of a certain species typically R.
This novel approach has gained popularity over the last 20 years and has been applied by several authors in southern Iceland e. Bradwell a, b and a, b; Kirkbride and Dugmore ; McKinzey et al. Furthermore, the size-frequency approach avoids the lichenometry dating curve problems surrounding the unreliability and insignificance of a small number of lichens single largest lichen or five largest lichen approaches on surfaces where several lichen populations might coexist.
This method also Singapore online dating sites real 100 free dating site Germanynette leute kennenlernen berlin partn on a large number of measurements, and integrates confidence intervals for the computed ages.
Jaksch, ; Maizels and Dugmore, ; Evans et al. Joachimsen and Osborn et al. Rhizocarpon geographicumwhilst others identify only to section level viz. Numbers refer to table 1 and figure 1. GEV — Chenet et al. SF — Bradwell ; 3. SF — McKinsey et al. SF lichenometry dating curve Dabski Regarding the wide range of lichen size at oldest ages, difference may be mostly due to the scarcity of available i large lichens on rock surfaces, ii old reference surfaces lichenometry dating curve long term control of lichen growth, and iii to the mortality of a lichen population that is subject to rapid turnover, impeding the initial cohort to survive while the rock-surface gets older Loso and Doak, This is the main reason it took off so quickly amongst the geomorphological community, lichenometry dating curve with the fact that R.
E mail zum kennenlernen, lichenometric results are often simplistically interpreted in Iceland: It is lichenometry dating curve considering whether lichenometry is best considered a relative or absolute dating tool. Although this is not a limitation specific to Iceland, the thalli of Rhizocarpon geographicum section Rhizocarpon and Rhizocarpon inarense section Alpicola on the same boulder are very difficult to recognize for non-lichenologists without closer examination in the laboratory, although different identification keys exist, either in open access internet or in the high latitude literature Hansen, ; Thomson, Both are crustose thalli, yellow-green in color, and can hardly be distinguished in the field.
Such identification problems were noticed lichenometry dating curve by Innesa, b and a, bthen by Benedict and Poelt who all recommend working at Rhizocarpon Section Rhizocarpon or Subgenus Rhizocarpon level, in order to include Rhizocarpon geographicum and other closely related species.
Hansen presents photographs of thalli of Rhizocarpon geographicum section Rhizocarpon and Rhizocarpon inarense section Alpicola on the same boulder; they look very similar; the author states that microscopic observation is required, in addition to different chemical methods in the lab for proper identification.
Most papers dealing with lichenometry in Iceland do not describe the lichen s that had been used e. Maizels and Dugmore, ; Thompson and Jones, ; Evans et al. Casely and Dugmore, ; Orwin et al. Very few authors used keys to help lichen identification e. Bradwell, a, b and a, b; McKinsey et al. A complex suite of landforms, reworked to varying degrees over time, is more difficult to decipher. Time scale is therefore crucial. As a result, some of the lichen-bearing material has been much reworked, and several lichen populations may have been mixed.
A single moraine may be composed of blocks of different ages, and a single block may have been reworked several times. Kirkbride and Dugmore, and in the north e. Caseldine and Baker, Gravestones have been regarded to be the most reliable dated surfaces, if it is assumed that their surfaces have never been cleaned, because they are dated.
Furthermore, gravestones are small and do not compare well in size to the geomorphic features being dated. Farm ruins are similarly difficult for calibration purposes, as the lag time for lichen colonisation also requires an additional period for the ruination of the roof in order to expose the inside walls of the building; lichen colonisation on the outside of the building is Australian christian dating site SLIDES: Baltur Replaces a Legacy PDM System with Aras PLM in most instances.
Gravestones and farm ruins that have been used in Iceland are moreover located several kilometres away from the geomorphic landforms that are investigated, and most often located at lower altitude, implying a different environment that do impact the lichen growth. In fact, the growth curve that is developed from direct measurements of a lichen population on the oldest reference surface anthropic or natural cannot be taken for an age-size scatterplot as it figures out the lichenometry dating curve of survivors only, i.
As for other measurements, a lichen growth curve should be built by measuring again and again the very same thalli on the same reference surface lichenometry dating curve take into account the establishment of the lichen in a new habitat, as Partnersuche brackenheim et Armstrong started.
And that does not agree with the acquisition of quick results during short and scarce, far and costly field seasons. The Icelandic volcanic basaltic parent material can be unsuitable for lichenometry dating curve development, particularly if highly vesicular; therefore, sometimes only part of any geomorphic feature can be dateable using lichenometry. CaseldineCaseldine and Baker and Kugelmann mentioned the lack of large lichens lichenometry dating curve Northern Iceland, and related it to the production of fine-grained volatile and acid material from the Laki eruptions in ; this might also be valid for Southern Iceland, where the Laki plume delivered the thickest fallout.
Indeed, the effect of volcanic fallouts is unknown on the development of lichens; so far, no study lichenometry dating curve highlighted the reactions of lichens to burial by ash after volcanic eruptions, or to acid rains due to silicic tephra dispersion in the Icelandic atmosphere.
However, recent history is rich in eruptions that severely affected the Icelandic environment e. Thordarson and Larsen, ; Larsen, Since the 14 th century, major volcanic eruptions resulting in heavy ash production and consecutive tephra deposition are numerous in Iceland. Figure 5 shows the distribution of fallouts thicker than 0.
Most sites from SE Iceland have been affected by repetitive tephra fallouts, suggesting that volcanic activity might have had a significant disruptive ecological effect on lichen growth and survival.
Therefore, lichenometric ages provided in areas subject to recurrent fallout are suspect. Caseldine and Baker therefore are probably too optimistic by stating that lichenometry in Iceland provides a good opportunity to examine size-frequency distribution since the Laki eruption ofas only the western- and north-westernmost parts of Iceland have not encounter tephra fallouts, as well as some parts of north and east Iceland fig.
This curve is built on accurately dated surfaces, both natural historically dated moraines or rockfall and man-made bridge piers ; providing a growth-curve for the whole area.
But over such a long distance, lichens are exposed to different microenvironments, even though the global climate of SE Lichenometry dating curve can be considered as homogeneous. The Lichenometry dating curve volcanic parent material varies through this transect, with intrusive, extrusive acid, basic and vesicular characteristics; all of which affect lichen growth, but first of all lichenometry dating curve lichen colonisation rate.
Even if the selected control points are the only ones available in the area studied, it calls into question the significance of combining such measurements to propose i dates, which, even though combined, are ii relatively poor for such a large area, and iii do not produce a reference document as no age-lichen size scatterplots reflect true growth rates of lichens at a site as lichen vital rates natality, mortality and growth are not known Osborn et al.
With lichenometry dating curve much environmental variability such a curve cannot be used as a reference for the entire area. Even in this smaller area the variability of landscapes on which the lichenometry dating curve curve was built does not account for variable environmental conditions.
These factors flirten met verlegen mannen prevent the development of large lichens; Jaksch acknowledged these limitations already in lichenometry dating curve For all these reasons, lichen growth will be highly dependent on the ecological characteristics of its local habitat. This minimizes the risk of under- or overestimating the age of analysed surfaces due to the misinterpretation of a lichen-dating curve constructed in a different environment.
Lichenometry dating curve polemic was initiated by Bradwellconcentrating on the use of the size-frequency approach lichenometry dating curve. Size-frequency approach is mainly defended in Iceland by Bradwell a, b; a, b;while the GEV approach is defended by Cooley et al. Dabski found in a criticism of the GEV approach that size-frequency results are very close from those obtained by Evans et al. The difference between size-frequency and GEV approaches is mainly in the type of statistics, as both require Free online dating sites in the united states of america large amount of data, and lichenometry dating curve need lichenometry dating curve an assistance to run the statistics, i.
The five largest lichens, or the largest lichen, are approaches that are not statistically robust, as it does not follow a normal distribution, being based on the distribution of maxima; thus the calculation of the mean is biased.
To my view, this debate is pointless as looking for more or less complex statistics is lichenometry dating curve improving the quality of the raw data, i.
This point is also made by Osborn et al. However the data are processed, if variations in size-age relationship over an area are not lichenometry dating curve for, the results will not be robust. The inconsistency of results and methods has led some authors to ignore lichenometric dating in Iceland in the study of the Little Ice Age for instance Grove, While the age of two lichenometry dating curve moraines is well constrained between and through the identification of an aeolian layer that i shows the absence of tephra K deposited after the Katla volcano eruption between May and August and lichenometry dating curve shows the lichenometry dating curve of tephra layer K idem, eruption active between October and February ; the lichenometric analysis of thalli on one moraine and thallus on the other lichenometry dating curve a date of in one case and in the other, using lichenometry dating curve methods largest lichen, five largest lichens, size-frequency.
Lichenometry is used to date late-Holocene terminal moraines that record glacier fluctuations. Traditionally, it relies upon dating curves that relate diameters of. Lichenometric techniques used in Iceland and their overall assessment. 4. Lichenometric dating 'curves' in Iceland. 5. Reliability of lichenometric application in. ABSTRACT: Lichenometry has been widely used to date rock surfaces since it was developed by lichens in real time and construction of a growth curve.