Emission Sources 1 B. Control Methods 15 C. Measurement Methods 36 D.
Emission Sources 1 B. Control Methods 15 C. Measurement Methods 36 D. Air Quality Measurement 56 E. Atmospheric Interaction 61 F. Basic Science and Technology 70 G. Standards and Criteria 75 H. Legal and Administrative 77 I. To help in approaching these concerns, the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards has compiled and produced this annotated bibliography. The abstracts in this volume have been selected from Environmental Protection Agency technical information storage and Hottest dating site in usa 02-0546 Diaphragm pump Quattro Flow 1200 SU systems, professional publications, convention proceedings and special studies by public and private agencies and experts.
These abstracts are arranged within the categories listed in the Contents Table. Subject and Hottest dating site in usa 02-0546 Diaphragm pump Quattro Flow 1200 SU indices refer to the abstracts by category letter and accession number.
Generally, a higher accession number indicates a more recent document. The author index lists authors individually, and primary authorship is indicated by an asterisk.
Copies of these documents are available from the Library free of charge to EPA employees, and state and local air pollution control agencies may obtain copies in microfiche format at no charge.
Other readers may seek documents from publishers or authors or, under Hottest dating site in usa 02-0546 Diaphragm pump Quattro Flow 1200 SU Freedom of Information Act, may obtain them from the Library for a modest fee. Air Hottest dating site in usa 02-0546 Diaphragm pump Quattro Flow 1200 SU Control Assoc.
Several vehicles manufactured duringoperated on a chassis dynamometer under Federal 7-mode cycle conditions, were tested to determine total paniculate composition, size of exhausted lead particulates, and the effects of traps on total lead emitted.
Cars varied widely in the amounts and composi- tion of their participate emissions. Cold-cycle operation gave times more paniculate than hot engine operation. Fuel additives affected the amount of emitted particulates. Probe sampling techniques underestimated by a large factor the amount of par- ticulates emitted by vehicles. Trapping systems offered poten- tial for greatly reducing the emission of suspended total par- ticulates.
The size of lead particulates was determined using 26 model cars with stabilized exhaust deposits. Author abstract modified Govan, Francis A. Preprint, Air Pollution Control Assoc. An emission test program was conducted with the cooperation of several commercial testing organizations to evaluate the best paniculate control techniques available for installation on new or substantially modified steam-generating systemm.
A total of 10 steam generators were tested for paniculate, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides emissions. The average paniculate emissions for the six coal fired steam-electric units tested were 0. The average paniculate emissions for the two oil fired steam-electric units tested were 0. The average paniculate emission for the 2 coal- fired industrial boilers tested were 0. A presurvey for the purposes of establishing liaison, setting operating parameters, outlining scaffolding requirements, checking sampling port conditions, and location of a clean-up area are a mandatory requisite for a valid test program.
Recommended testing procedures are discussed. A technique was developed to estimate air pollution emissions from present and projected residential and commercial land uses by employing the Land Use Natural Resource Inventory LUNR Inventory in combination with population and com- mercial employee figures.
While the method used for estimat- ing total residential and commercial emissions is a well established one, the allocation of these emissions on a land use grid basis has a number of desirable advantages. The procedure allows for easy and accurate estimates of area source inputs for diffusion models, the projection of emissions resulting from future residential and commercial land develop- ment for any area in the state, the consideration of air pollu- tant emissions in land use-zoning procedures, and the testing of varying inputs to the system i.
Author abstract modified Friedlander, S. Air pollution sources of given types, whether natural or man- made, emit a characteristic set of chemical elements in ap- proximately fixed proportions. If the sources in a polluted re- gion are known, the contributions from each source can be estimated by measuring elemental concentrations at a given point and solving a set of simultaneous linear algebraic equa- tions.
The method was applied to paniculate matter measured in the air of Pasadena over an hour period and averaged over particle size. Sources included sea salt, soil dust, automobile exhaust fuel oil fly ash, Portland cement, and tire dust. The estimate for this figure is unterschied weight watchers online und treffen on a carbon balance.
Improvements and extensions of the method are discussed. The potential sources of emission discussed in this paper cover only the major problems facing the coal industry.
The modern coal single frauen aus lauenburg industry is aware of the many Hottest dating site in usa 02-0546 Diaphragm pump Quattro Flow 1200 SU and regulations facing it with regard to the environment. All sources of potential air pollution emissions at existing, as well as new coal mine operations must undergo careful scrutiny. The most obvious and expensive control will be that of par- ticulate emissions flirten ab 45 thermal driers.
These are capable of measurement of stack emission tests. Fugitive dust emissions from breakers, crushers, and other preparation plant facilities emitting dust Hottest dating site in usa 02-0546 Diaphragm pump Quattro Flow 1200 SU require water sprays or enclosures with some type of collector. Handling systems as well as loading facilities will require efforts to minimize fugitive dust. Haulage roads will require oiling and more frequent spraying with water to ally dust.
This will be particularly true in areas visible from public roads and neighboring residences. Author summa- ry modified Feldman, P. The correlation between plume opacity and particle size dis- tribution and mass concentration was studied.
Emission and opacity measurements were obtained using two lignite fired boilers. A Brink cascade impactor was used to collect size dis- tribution data, and two type sampling trains were used to mea- sure participate concentrations.
A computer program was developed to predict opacity given the size distribution and mass concentration data. The predicted opacities were then compared with the measured values. The program was written so that it was not necessary to approximate the distribution by a single log-normal distribution.
Extinction efficiency factors were calculated from the Mie equations using a subroutine developed by IBM. Opacities were calculated from the Lam- bert-Beer Law with extinction coefficients evaluated by nu- merical integration over the size distribution data.
Special care chould be taken in the measurement of mass concentration and size distribution data which are to be used to calculate opacities. Significant error in computed opacity can result from normal error in these measurements.
Further, opacity in itself has little value as a general indicator of participate mass concentration or particle size. Thus, each system under study must be described in detail before opacity has practical mean- ing. For nonabsorbing particles, the size range encompassing 0. Therefore, for acceptable correla- tion of opacity and particle size and mass data, the size dis- tribution data in this range must be accurately represented.
It is not sufficient, in many cases, to represent the data as frau sucht mann für eine nacht ch sin- gle long-normal distribution. Author abstract modified White, Richard K.
The status of research and technology for evaluating and con- trolling air pollution problems associated with livestock production units is reviewed. The major problems are dust from cattle feed lot and from Hottest dating site in usa 02-0546 Diaphragm pump Quattro Flow 1200 SU poultry and swine buildings, high levels of gases within confined livestock hous- ing, and odor problems associated with the handling, treatment and disposal of livestock manures.
The principal areas of fu- ture research needs are correlating quantitative analytical data with sensory evaluation under field conditions and the development of Hottest dating site in usa 02-0546 Diaphragm pump Quattro Flow 1200 SU dispersa model for odors.
Author summary modified Hagen, L. Previous research related dust concentrations to visibility and showed that the median dust storm concentration was 4. Wind speed and particulate concentration profiles were integrated to computer dust passage at various locations in the Great Plains. The an- nual dust passage varied widely, depending upon precipitation, but it averaged 40, tons per vertical sq mile in the s and 12, tons in the s.
Changes in the dust passage between adjacent locations were consistent, and the lowest dust passage occurred in the least erosive areas. The estimated total particulates suspended in dust storms ranged from 37 to million tons annually; the average dropped from mil- lion tons in the s to 77 million tons in the s.
Esti- mates of suspended particulates agreed well with dust deposi- tion data collected for a limited period in the s. Based on these estimates, wind erosion produces a larger mass of par- ticulates than do all other primary sources in the United States combined.
Further, the high concentrations and frequent oc- currence of dust storms make it doubtful that any Great Plains state can meet all the criteria in the National Ambient Air Quality Standards, particularly if particle size continues to be disregarded in the standards. Author abstract modified Sehmel, George A. Preprint, Air Pollu- tion Control Assoc. Airborne particle size distributions were determined, and adequate particle sampling techniques over a semiarid region were established.
The airborne particle size distribution func- tion was determined for 'particle diameters from 1 to micron at 6 heights from 0. The distribution function decreased up to 10 orders of magnitude as the particle diame- ter was increased from 1 to micron.
On windy, dusty days, for partnervermittlung st petersburg vip micron particles, the distribution function in- creased to five orders of magnitude. The distribution function for 1 micron particles increased at most one order of mag- nitude.
On nondusty, nonwindy days, there is an apparent lower limit to the distribution function. The exponential decrease in the size distribution is proportional to D to the - 3.
The dis- tribution function for smaller particles was determined using hi-volume cascade impactors. Particles were collected on the internal surfaces of the cascade impactors at locations other than on the engineered particle impaction sites. This undesired collection is termed a wall loss. The fractional wall losses were a function of either sampling time spring versus summer or sampling duration 40 hr versus less at hr.
Author ab- stract modified Heisler, S. A method for calculating the number and chemical element size distribution of Pasadena aerosols in a polluted atmosphere was developed based on measured source characteristics and a chemical element balance for collected aerosol samples. Secondary formation processes for particulate matter signifi- cantly modify the primary source spectrum and are taken into account using certain models for the conversion processes.
The calculated size and volume distributions compare well with experimental data. Calculations of the chemical element distribution with respect to size Hottest dating site in usa 02-0546 Diaphragm pump Quattro Flow 1200 SU also been made.